When Noah awoke from his wine and knew what his youngest son had done to him, he said,
“Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be to his brothers.”
He also said,
“Blessed be the Lord, the God of Shem and
let Canaan be his servant.
May God enlarge Japheth, and let him dwell in the tents of Shem, and let Canaan be his servant.”
After the flood Noah lived 350 years. All the days of Noah were 950 years, and he died. – Genesis 9:24-29
This passage provides minimal insight into the story and its interpretative options. That Noah “knew” his authority had been challenged is possible through many means of historical action. Likewise, his pronouncement of curse was likely done to Ham directly which is absent from the text.
The curse, like covenants, is both on Ham and his seed since Canaan is the fourth child of Ham (Gen 10:6). This curse would be fulfilled in the promise of the land of Canaan to Abraham as part of his everlasting covenant with God (Gen 17:8).